Zyvox (Linezolid) is the new group of synthetic antimicrobials within the class oxazolidinones that have activity against most Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacteria. It is a great antibiotic which battles bacteria in your body. It is also an MAO (monoamine oxidase) inhibitor.
This medicine is indicated for the treatment of community acquired pneumonia and nosocomial pneumonia when known or suspected to be caused by susceptible Gram positive bacteria.
Mechanism of action:
It is a synthetic antibiotic belonging to a new class of antimicrobials called the oxazolidinones. Linezolid disrupts bacterial growth by inhibiting the initiation process in protein synthesis. This site of inhibition occurs earlier in the initiation process than other protein synthesis inhibitors that interfere with the elongation process. Because the site of inhibition is unique to linezolid, cross-resistance to other protein synthesis inhibitors. It may also inhibit virulence factor expression and decrease toxin production in gram-positive pathogens.
It is preferable to use an agent possessing bactericidal properties when possible. It has been demonstrated that linezolid is bacteriostatic against enterococci and staphylococci, and bactericidal for the majority of streptococci.
When administered for short periods, linezolid is a relatively safe drug; it can be used in patients of all ages and in people with liver disease or poor kidney function.
This drug causes following side effects.
* fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms, sores in mouth and throat;
* easy bruising or bleeding, pale skin, feeling light-headed or short of breath, rapid heart rate, trouble concentrating;
* diarrhea that is watery or bloody;
* blurred vision, trouble seeing colors
* numbness, burning pain, or tingly feeling in hands or feet; or
* seizure (convulsions).
This drug should not be used with the following medications because very serious interactions may occur: atomoxetine, bethanidine, bupropion, buspirone, carbamazepine, cyclobenzaprine, dextromethorphan, certain antihistamines (azatadine, carbetapentane, chlorpheniramine), certain eye drops (apraclonidine, brimonidine), herbal products (e.g., ephedra/ma huang), maprotiline, methyldopa, certain narcotic pain relievers (fentanyl, meperidine, methadone, tapentadol), papaverine, drugs for Parkinson’s disease (such as entacapone, tolcapone), sympathomimetics (e.g., ephedrine, methylphenidate), tetrabenazine, tricyclic antidepressants (such as amitriptyline, doxepin).
Avoid taking other MAO inhibitors (isocarboxazid, methylene blue, moclobemide, phenelzine, procarbazine, rasagiline, selegiline, tranylcypromine) within 2 weeks before, during, and after treatment with this medication.
-Linezolid should not be used those taking any medicinal product which inhibits monoamine oxidases A or B (e.g. phenelzine, isocarboxazid, selegiline, moclobemide) or within two weeks of taking any such medicinal product.
-Unless there are facilities available for close observation and monitoring of blood pressure, this drug should not be administered to patients with the following underlying clinical conditions or on the following types of concomitant medications:
– Patients with uncontrolled hypertension, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoid, thyrotoxicosis, bipolar depression, schizoaffective disorder, acute confusional states.
– Patients taking any of the following medications: serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (see section 4.4), tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonists (triptans), directly and indirectly acting sympathomimetic agents (including the adrenergic bronchodilators, pseudoephedrine and phenylpropanolamine), vasopressive agents (e.g. epinephrine, norepinephrine), dopaminergic agents (e.g. dopamine, dobutamine), pethidine or buspirone.
-linezolid and its metabolites may pass into breast milk and, accordingly, breastfeeding should be discontinued prior to and throughout administration .
The dosage regimen for linezolid is 400 mg or 600 mg every 12 hours for a duration of 10 to 28 days.
Store at room temperature at 77 degrees F (25 degrees C) away from light and moisture.